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10 Biggest Human Migrations in History

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When a large group of people moves from one geographical location to another, the world faces a phenomenon of mass migration. Mass migrations were not rare events in 15th, 16th, 19th and early 20th centuries. However, even nowadays citizens of countries have to flee from their motherlands because of wars, political regimes, economic conditions, and so on.

Let's take a look at the 10 Biggest Human Migrations in History:

1. From Rural China to Urban Centers

Estimated Migrants to date about 160 Million. Grinding poverty was always a problem for rural China, and since the death of Mao in 1976, the relaxation of migration rules have given immense impetus to this rural-urban migration. These migrant workers have transformed the economy of China providing much needed cheap labor to fuel the export-led boom of the mighty Chinese economy. Currently, migrant workers make up to 12% of the countries population, the Government's planning commission expects another 100 million people to move to cities by 2020.

2. India to Pakistan

Following the partition of British India into Pakistan and India, some 15 million people found themselves stranded in the 'wrong' part of the land, Hindus in Pakistani territory and Muslims in Indian territory. Thus began the greatest international migration in history with Muslims migrating towards eastern and western wings of the newly formed state of Pakistan and Hindus crossing over to India. Emotions ran high and terrible atrocities were committed on both sides ranging from damage to property, arson, killing and mob violence. Ordinary peace loving Hindus and Muslims became so enraged with each other that they committed such atrocities they would never have considered themselves capable off. In some places, even the state troops joined violence. On 9th August 1947 a train carrying Muslim officers from Delhi to Karachi was intercepted and four senior plus 150 other officers were massacred. Soon trains of migrants began to arrive at their destination filled with dead bodies and their caravans intercepted and looted. Today, however, these migrants have fully blended into the Pakistani society and live as a respectable middle-class community.

3. Resettlement of Europe after Soviet Domination

Estimated Population displaced about 12 Million Germans. At the end of World War II changes in the map of Europe meant that many people found themselves living in hostile territory and so millions, primarily Germans were expelled, evacuated or fled from Central and Eastern Europe to the new Germany, making this the largest single instance of ethnic cleansing in recorded history.

4. Europe and rest of the World to Israel

Estimated Migrants to Date about 3.6 Million. Traditionally referred to as the 'Aliyah' in Hebrew, migration to the holy land of Israel has been the aspiration of many Jews and is also one of the cardinal doctrine of the Zionist ideology. The main aim of the Zionist movement was to establish the state of Israel, an independent homeland for Jews. It encouraged Jews from all over the world to migrate to Israel but Ottoman rule checked their numbers in Palestine area. Then World War I changed the scenario and emigrants streamed freely into the British mandated Palestine, some were motivated by their religious cause while others escaped antisemitic movements such as the Holocaust. The British had already promised the state of Israel for Jews in the Balfour Declaration in 1917. From 1919-1948 there were 493,149 emigrants then after the declaration of the state of Israel this number increased to 687,624 (1948-1951) and since then, Jews continue to trickle to their holy land.

5. Afghanistan to Pakistan

Estimated Migrants about 2.58 Million. The state of Afghanistan was thrown into instability when the Soviet Union invaded the country in 1979. Unable to defeat the local Mujaheddin resistance backed by a coalition of American CIA and Pakistan, Soviets were forced to retreat in 1988 after a bloody war. A civil war ensued between local warlords after the withdrawal of USSR and severe droughts for several years added to the misery of the local population which was already torn with a decade of war. As a result of the terrible state of the country millions of Afghans were compelled to seek refugee in neighboring Iran and Pakistan. To date Pakistan remains the largest host to international refugees, the figure being estimated at 1.6 Million and majority of them are Afghans.

6. China to Taiwan and rest of the World

Estimated Migrants about 2 Million. When the communists under Mao Zedong defeated the nationalists and set up a communist state, many millions especially the Nationalist army fled to Taiwan, which they declared a separate country, claiming it as the real China. Industry quickly developed there and the state became rich and prosperous. Other Chinese fled all over the world and because of their dedicated and hardworking altitude they have prospered.

7. Vietnam to rest of the World

Estimated Migrants about 1-2 Million. Millions of people fled from Vietnam when it was taken over by the communists in their war with the USA in 1975. Some did not want to live in the communist society, others had helped the Americans. They fled mainly by sea in any sort of vessel they could get. Hundreds and thousands were drowned in their tiny boats in which they had to face deadly storms, hunger and had to elude the pirates but many struggled through. Some of them have become quite prosperous in the developed countries particularly the United States. According to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees, between 200,000 and 400,000 boat people died at sea.

8. California Gold Rush

The period between 1848 and 1855 is known in the U.S. as California Gold Rush. The rush started when James W. Marshall found gold at Sutter’s Mill in California. When people in neighboring areas heard the news, they rushed to California in search for gold. The amount of those “gold-seekers” soon reached 300,000 of Americans, Europeans, Australians, Asians and Latin Americans.

9. Atlantic Slave Trade

During the period between 15th and 19th centuries, traders were transporting slaves from West Africa to the New World and Americas. The slaves had to work on coffee, cocoa, sugar, cotton and tobacco plantations, constructions, silver and gold mines, fields, and in the homes or rich people as servants. Slave trade was one of the biggest migrations in history, where humans were transported to foreign lands and sold on local markets to become someone’s property.

10. The Huns’ Barbarous Invasions

The nomadic tribe of the Huns lived in a region near the Caspian Sea. The tribe’s name remained in the history because of their barbarous attacks on the regions surrounding the Roman Empire, which triggered the Great Migration, or “Wandering of the Nations” between 376 and 476 AD. The Great Migration involved Goths, Vandals, and Alans, who weakened the Roman Empire.

posted Jan 11 by Sumana 1 abuse reported

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At present, Democracy is being practiced in many countries around the world. The people get to choose who is to lead the government and who their representatives in parliament will be. But that has not always been the case in the past where subjects were subjected to dictatorial rule. Some nations are still under dictators at present and they suffer under these tyrants. Dictatorship can be defined as a form of governance whereby a country or a state is ruled by one person or a small group of people who exercise absolute power over their subjects.

Let's take a look at top 10 Evil dictators in the World history:

1. Adolf Hitler, Germany

Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party. He was the absolute dictator of Germany from 1934 to 1945. He gained support by promoting values like German nationalism and anti-semitism. Hitler was appointed chancellor in 1933 and began the Third Reich. Hitler was power hungry as all hell, hated the shit out of Jews (and others), and wanted hegemony in Europe. The militarization that was needed to complete such a lofty goal led to the outbreak of World War II. Nazi forces engaged in the systematic murder of as many as 17 million civilians, an estimated six million of whom were Jews, and 1.5 million Romanies.

2. Kim Jong-il, North Korea

Kim Jong-il was a modern day dictator. He arrested anyone who opposed his workers party. He would lock them in labor camps where he would overwork them and starve them to death. He demanded total loyalty from his citizens and even demand that they refer to him as the Supreme Leader of North Korea. Those who failed to do so were executed or thrown into the labor camps. He was so obsessed with military warfare that he would commit all government finances into the military. This paralyzed other departments such as healthcare and it was the citizens who suffered the most.

3. Saddam Hussein, Iraq

One of the most well-known leaders of the 21st century, Saddam Hussein instituted mass genocide against the Kurds, Shabaks, Assyrians, Madeans, and other ethnic groups that rebelled against his brutal regime. An estimated 2 million people died at his hand. He used mustard and nerve gas against the Kurdish town of Halabja, a population of 45,000, killing between 3,200 – 5,000 people. He used more chemical weapons against the Kurds during a genocidal campaign, killing between 50,000 and 100,000 Kurdish men, women, and children. No one was safe from imprisonment and torture. He often had the torture of his victims recorded and then replayed during dinner for his amusement.

4. Muammar Gaddafi, Libya

He ruled Libya for over 42 years until his death in 2011. During this time he used Libya’s oil wealth to enrich himself and his close family. He ruled high-handedly such very few dared oppose his rule. Peaceful protesters were often killed by his military officials. This continued until 2011 when the Arabian Revolution was in full swing. This motivated the Libyans to take to the street in armed protest until they were able to kill one of the meanest dictators of our time.

5. Idi Amin Dada, Uganda

Even though Idi Amin Dada ruled Uganda for only eight years from 1971 to 1979, he took full advantage of his time in command to put his wrath on display. Roughly half a million people lost their lives due to extrajudicial killings and genocide during this time. His rule was characterized by massive human rights violations, political assassinations and extrajudicial killings. Anyone who dared oppose his rule was executed mostly without due process. He was so greedy that he would even take the wives of other people and make them his own. Not only was he evil and malicious but he was also a cannibal. He would cut pieces of flesh from those he has killed and eat then raw.

6. Bashar Al Assad, Syria

Bashar al-Assad is the incumbent President of Syria despite calls both locally and abroad for him to step down. By holding onto power he is responsible for the civil crisis currently experienced in Syria. His regime is ruthless and merciless in its efforts to hold onto power. They have even resorted to killing children as young as 2 years old so as to scare anyone who opposes his government. For all these atrocities is therefore one of the Evil dictator in the World history.

7. Joseph Stalin, USSR

Jozef Stalin was the first Secretary of the Communist Party from 1922 – 1953. He became the leader of Soviet Union after Lenin died in 1924, and launched government programs that would make the country more progressive. His attempt to move to the new economy, however, led to the starvation of nearly 10 million people. With many intellectuals and activists not in favor of his leadership, Stalin also launched the “Great Purge”, killing every person who opposed him and his ideals.

8. Benito Mussolini, Italy

He was the ruler of Italy during the Second World War. He was an extreme socialist and exhibited totalitarian rule on Italians by making Italy a one party state. He ruled Italy with an iron fist but sadly enough the Italians still followed him. He collaborated with Nazi Germany during World War II and he was eventually killed in 1945.

9. Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe

President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe is said to have risen to power via electoral deception and fearmongering. There was even one election where he did not receive any votes in a certain province so he orchestrated the killing of over 20,000 civilians by fabricating stories of rebellion and treason. During his time in office over 3.1 million Zimbabweans lost their homes, jobs, and livelihood due to his “land reform program” aka bulldozing any village that voices dissent.

10. Fidel Castro, Cuba

Fidel Castro is the former Head of State of Cuba who served as president from 1976 up to 2008 when he handed the reins of power to his brother Raul Castro. He treated Cuba like his personal farm yard by assigning himself all the constitutional powers of governance. By denying the Cubans the right to elect the leaders of their choice, Fidel Castro makes it into the list of the Top 10 Evil dictators in the World history. His administration was responsible for countless cases of human rights violation and the mass exodus of over one million Cubans during the Cuban Exile. His stance on communism impoverished Cuba and that was the major reason behind the Mass Exodus.

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